Study of English

March 31, 2007

BACKGROUND OF ‘COMFORT WOMEN’ ISSUE #2/ No hard evidence of coercion in recruitment of comfort women

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 9:30 pm

BACKGROUND OF ‘COMFORT WOMEN’ ISSUE / No hard evidence of coercion in recruitment of comfort women

The Yomiuri Shimbun(Yomiuri News Paper, Japan)


This is the second installment on the so-called “comfort women” controversy. The U.S. House of Representatives has been deliberating a draft resolution calling for the Japanese government to apologize over the matter by spurning the practice as slavery and human trafficking. Why has such a biased view of the issue prevailed?

The issue of the so-called comfort women has been brought up repeatedly because misunderstandings that the Japanese government and the Imperial Japanese Army forced women into sexual servitude have not been completely dispelled.

The government has admitted the Imperial Japanese Army’s involvement in brothels, saying that “the then Japanese military was, directly or indirectly, involved in the establishment and management of the comfort stations and the transfer of comfort women.” The “involvement” refers to giving the green light to opening a brothel, building facilities, setting regulations regarding brothels, such as fees and opening hours, and conducting inspections by army doctors.

However, the government has denied that the Japanese military forcibly recruited women. On March 18, 1997, a Cabinet Secretariat official said in the Diet, “There is no evidence in public documents that clearly shows there were any forcible actions [in recruiting comfort women].” No further evidence that could disprove this statement has been found.

The belief that comfort women were forcibly recruited started to spread when Seiji Yoshida, who claimed to be a former head of the mobilization department of the Shimonoseki branch of an organization in charge of recruiting laborers, published a book titled “Watashi no Senso Hanzai” (My War Crime) in 1983. Yoshida said in the book that he had been involved in looking for suitable women to force them into sexual slavery in Jeju, South Korea. “We surrounded wailing women, took them by the arms and dragged them out into the street one by one,” he said in the book.

But researchers concluded in the mid-1990s that the stories in the book are not authentic. On March 5 this year, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said at the House of Councillors Budget Committee that Yoshida’s story does not prove that women were forcibly recruited. He said: “I think it was The Asahi Shimbun [that reported the story] that a man named Seiji Yoshida testified about his having searched for comfort women. But later [Yoshida’s testimony] was found to have been made up.”

As the comfort women issue started to take on political and diplomatic dimensions, some people in South Korea and also in Japan confused comfort women with female volunteer corps, strengthening the misbelief that there was coercion.

Female volunteer corps were, according to a historian Ikuhiko Hata’s book “Ianfu to Senjo no Sei” (Comfort Women and Sex in the Battlefield), single women aged between 12 and 40 who were mobilized to work in factories, starting in August 1944, primarily to secure necessary labor.

There were cases in which malicious brokers sweet-talked women with promises of easy money or intentionally concealed from them what life was going to be like in brothels.

The War Ministry wrote a letter, dated March 4, 1938, to the troops dispatched to China. The letter, titled “Regarding the recruiting of women at the army’s comfort stations,” said there were malicious brokers who were recruiting women in a way “similar to kidnapping.”

It said, “Nothing should be overlooked so that the military’s prestige and social orders are maintained.” The letter indicates how the Imperial Japanese Army tried to make sure that women were not forcibly recruited.

However, in the confusion of war, elite Imperial Japanese Army soldiers who were on the fast track for officer status sent detained Dutch women to a brothel in Indonesia. The incident came to be known as the Semarang incident.

The Imperial Japanese Army Headquarters closed down the brothel immediately after learning of the incident, and soldiers involved received severe punishment–some were sentenced to death–at a war crimes court convened by the Dutch Army after the war.

(Mar. 31, 2007)


BACKGROUND OF ‘COMFORT WOMEN’ ISSUE #1 / Comfort station originated in govt-regulated ‘civilian prostitution’

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 9:37 am

BACKGROUND OF ‘COMFORT WOMEN’ ISSUE / Comfort station originated in govt-regulated ‘civilian prostitution’

Controversy over the so-called comfort women has been inflamed again. The U.S. House of Representatives has been deliberating a draft resolution calling for the Japanese government to apologize over the matter by spurning the practice as slavery and human trafficking. Why has such a biased view of the issue prevailed? The Yomiuri Shimbun carried in-depth reports on the issue Tuesday. The writers are Masanobu Takagi, Hiroaki Matsunaga and Emi Yamada of the political news department. Starting today, The Daily Yomiuri will carry the stories in three installments.

To discuss the comfort women issue, it is indispensable to understand the social background of the time when prostitution was authorized and regulated by the government in Japan. Prostitution was tacitly permitted in limited areas up until 1957, when the law to prevent prostitution was enforced.

Comfort women received remuneration in return for sexual services at so-called comfort stations for military officers and soldiers. According to an investigation report publicized by the government on Aug. 4, 1993, on the issue of comfort women recruited into sexual service for the Japanese military, there is a record mentioning the establishment of such a brothel in Shanghai around 1932, and additional similar facilities were established in other parts of China occupied by the Imperial Japanese Army.

Some of them were under the direct supervision of the military authorities, but many of the brothels catering to soldiers were privately operated.

Modern historian Ikuhiko Hata, a former professor at Nihon University, says the comfort women system should be defined as the “battleground version of civilian prostitution.”

Comfort women were not treated as “paramilitary personnel,” unlike jugun kangofu (military nurses) and jugun kisha (military correspondents). During the war, comfort women were not called “jugun ianfu” (prostitutes for troops). Use of such generic terminology spread after the war. The latter description is said to have been used by writer Kako Senda (1924-2000) in his book titled “Jugun Ianfu” published in 1973. Thereafter, the usage of jugun ianfu prevailed.

In addition to Japanese women, women from the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan, both then under Japanese colonial rule, and China, the Philippines, Indonesia and other countries invaded by the Imperial Japanese Army were recruited as comfort women.

Hata estimates that 40 percent of the wartime comfort women were Japanese, 30 percent Chinese and other nationalities and 20 percent Korean.

The total number of comfort women has yet to be determined exactly.

According to a report compiled by Radhika Coomaraswany of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights in 1996, there were 200,000 comfort women from the Korean Peninsula alone. The figure in the report was based on information Coomaraswany had obtained in North Korea. But this report contained many factual errors, and its quoted sources lacked impartiality. Foreign Minister Taro Aso rejected the figure of 200,000 as “lacking objective evidence.”

The reasons cited for the need for comfort women and wartime brothels are as follows:

— To prevent military officers and soldiers from raping women and committing other sex crimes in occupied areas.

— To prevent venereal disease from spreading through troops who would otherwise contact local prostitutes who did not receive periodic medical checks.

— To prevent military secrets from being leaked by limiting the women who provided sexual services to officers and soldiers to recruited comfort women.

Such a system and the use of wartime brothels generally are not limited only to the Imperial Japanese military.

The U.S. troops that occupied Japan after the war used brothels provided by the Japanese side. There was a case in which U.S. military officials asked the Japanese authorities to provide women for sexual services. During the Vietnam War, brothels similar to those established for the former Japanese military were available to U.S. troops, a U.S. woman journalist has pointed out.

Hata said: “There were wartime brothels also for the German troops during World War II. Some women were forced into sexual slavery. South Korean troops had brothels during the Korean War, according to a finding by a South Korean researcher.”

(Mar. 31, 2007)

Don’t misinterpret comfort women issue

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea,U.S.A. — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 9:33 am

Don’t misinterpret comfort women issue

The nub of the issue of the so-called comfort women is whether there were instances of their being forced into sexual servitude by the Japanese authorities.

The Foreign Affairs Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives is deliberating a resolution against Japan in connection with this issue. The resolution calls on the Japanese government to acknowledge historical responsibility for the Imperial Japanese Army’s coercion of young women of other Asian countries into sexual slavery during World War II and urges the prime minister to apologize for the sexual exploitation.

The resolution says the Japanese military commissioned the acquisition of comfort women. However, no documents have been found to support this assertion. Historians also accept that no such orchestrated action was undertaken by the Japanese military.

We wonder whether the U.S. lawmakers who sponsored the resolution have evidence to back their claims.

At a Diet committee session, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said the resolution was “not based on objective facts.” Foreign Minister Taro Aso has expressed a similar view, calling the resolution “extremely regrettable.”

Since the resolution is filled with distortions, the government must properly explain the facts and do everything to prevent it from being adopted.


Kono statement inaccurate

Concerning the recruitment of comfort women, the prime minister stressed, “None of the testimonies confirmed coercion in the narrow sense.”

Abe explicitly asserted that the comfort women were not forcibly recruited, saying there was no “coercion like the hunting of comfort women, with officials rushing into houses to drag women out, like kidnapping them.”

However, Abe acknowledged that private recruiters lured women against their will in a “broader sense of coercion.” These cases are totally different from coercion by the military.

Some mass media organizations and Diet members have stretched the meaning of “coercion” and criticized the government, ignoring the nitty-gritty of the issue and spreading the mistaken perception of the issue.

Why has the comfort women issue been dredged up repeatedly?

The main reason is the 1993 statement issued by then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono. The statement suggested that the Japanese military forcibly recruited comfort women, saying, “The authorities were directly involved” in the recruitment of such women.

However, a former deputy chief cabinet secretary and other officials later said that phrase was written without the facts having been confirmed.


Govt caved in to pressure

A group of Liberal Democratic Party lawmakers wants to have the Kono statement revised, saying vague expressions in the statement have led to misunderstandings.

The U.S. House resolution criticizes such moves in Japan, saying they represent their “desire to dilute or rescind the 1993 statement.”

But it could be a natural course of action to revise the inaccurate Kono statement.

What was behind the issuance of the Kono statement was the government’s misjudgment–made under pressure from South Korea–that its acknowledgement that the comfort women were forcibly recruited would lead to the settlement of the issue.

The government should not make the same diplomatic mistake in its response to the U.S. House resolution.

(From The Yomiuri Shimbun, March 7, 2007)

(Mar. 7, 2007)

March 27, 2007

The small percentage of Japanese soldiers taken prisoner in the Pacific War.

Filed under: Japan,U.S.A. — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 3:47 pm

 It was few that the soldier of Japanese army became a captive in the Pacific War.
The Japanese thought becoming enemy’s captive in the war was shameful. I thought that this thought was the reason.
However, the reason was not only that. There are the following descriptions in the diary of famous Mr. Lindbergh “The Wartime Journals of Charles A. Lindbergh”.

Monday, June 26
………  The talk drifted to prisoners of war and the small percentage of Japanese soldiers taken prisoner. “Oh, We could take more if we wanted to,” one of the officers replied. “But our boys don’t like to take prisoners.”
“We had a couple of thousand down at ———–, but only a hundred or two were turned in. They had an accident with the rest. It doesn’t encourage the rest to surrender when they hear of their buddies being marched out on the flying field and machine guns turned loose on them.”
“Or after a couple of them get shot with their hands up in the air,” another officer chimed in.
 “Well, take the ——–th. They found one of their men pretty badly mutilated. After that, you can bet they didn’t capture very many Japs.”

March 26, 2007

News paper articles of Korea at Japanese empire age.

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 5:18 pm
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Articles in a Korean newspaper The Dong-a Ilbo(East Asian daily report) at Japanese empire age are here.
Korean language was written by using both the Chinese character and Hangul in this Japanese empire age.
(Modern Korean is almost written only by Hangul. )

” Japanese empire deprived us of Korean language. ”
This is written in the national history textbook of South Korea, and the people believe it.
However, it is not true.

August 31, 1939
The malignant introduction trader is active behind the scenes.
Kidnapped young women in the farm village.
100 victim women or more.
The detective in Pusan(,Korea) rushed to Mukden(,Manchuria).

March 15, 1936
Satan who takes advantage of farmer’s food scarcity of spring.
The human trafficker is active behind the scenes in the farm village.
The bait of finding employment. Young women was allured.
One person has arrested in Usan.

December 4, 1938
Cheated young women of good families.
Tried to sell her to Manchuria.
The Pusan police station arrests the criminal.

A Korean introduction trader cheated two young Japanese women, saying, “I introduce work in Manchuria “. And, he tried to counterfeit the letter of attorney of the content “I sell off this woman to the licensed quarters”.

June 30, 1933
Takes girls on the road.
Sells over to a Chinese of the shameful job.
A man and the woman who had sold Ms.Kim were arrested.
The means of kidnapping turns out.

A Korean kidnaps a certain girl on the road and policeman arrested him. The man seems to have tried to kidnap the girl, and to sell to the Chinese of the prostitution racket.
He was a kidnapping hardened offender.

May 5, 1933 
Counterfeits the register.
Compels the shameful job.
Act of satanic licensed quarters trader
The police arrest the criminal.

A Korean whoremonger bought 16-year-old girl. However, because her age is insufficient, the licensed prostitution cannot do her as for him. He tried to take the business license by using the register of the imitation, and, then, it came to light.He made a lot of young girls do prostitution by such a method.

March 23, 2007

Korea Registered “Comfort women” for UN Soldiers.

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Korea,U.S.A. — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 4:33 am
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Korea Registered “Comfort women” for UN Soldiers.

March 22, 2007

Foreign Correspondents Ask about “Comfort Women”

Filed under: cofort women,Corea,Corea(Korea),IANFU 'comfort women' — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 12:13 pm
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Foreign Correspondents Ask about “Comfort Women”
answered by Fujioka Nobukatsu
Heated Q&A Session follows Professor Fujioka’s Talk at the Foreign Correspondents’ Club
In the Q & A session, English was used by questioners and Japanese by Professor Fujioka for answers. The questions are unchanged from the original. Certain revisions have been made in the English translated replies for greater clarity.

Question 1 (Gebhard Hielscher, Sudduetsche Zeitung) :
You say there’s no evidence of foreign women having been forced into prostitution, and use as a case one particular incident. I have not checked out Mr. Yoshida’s village, so if that case is right or wrong, I don’t know, but there’s plenty of other villages, where it has been established that many women were actually tricked or forced from villages into service for the Japanese, which turned out to be prostitution, which they didn’t know when they were taken from their village as young girls, not as prostitutes.

I’ve talked to several of them myself already many years ago at a seminar in Shizuoka, where some of them were there. There have been later cases. There’s no question that many of these cases exist, so I find it strange how you can make a statement, that there’s no evidence. There’s plenty of evidence. If you don’t want to recognize it, that’s your problem, not a problem of history.
When you then say the Japanese didn’t commit any worse crimes than anybody else, that may be so, but you think that, for instance, if you drive faster than the drive limit allows, and the police stops you, and you say, well, there were others who also drove faster, that will save you from punishment? That is, what I’m trying to say is you have to handle your own problems, others will have to handle theirs.

For instance, you didn’t even mention the statement by the government, Mr. Kono, when he was government spokesman for the Miyazawa government at the end. He made a official statement, the government was in fact through the army involved in prostitution. How can you make such a statement that there’s no evidence without even referring to the government acknowledgement of it? I find it very strange, and I find it particularly strange from someone who calls himself an academic.

Answer 1 (Fujioka) :
Thank you for your very straightforward question.
I believe that the questions that you have just posed need to be placed on the table when we talk about “military comfort women”.

There were three points in your question.

First of all, you have no objections about what I have just mentioned about the testimony by Mr. Yoshida.

However, I should emphasize that comfort women became a serious issue only after almost ten years after Mr. Yoshida’s book got published, in 1983. “Comfort women” were never mentioned before that time.

I mentioned Professor Hata’s field trip. I should emphasize that even before his research trip, a Korean reporter studied it on her own initiative and had reached the conclusion that such a thing had not occurred, that Mr. Yoshida’s story about the Japanese army kidnapping Korean women and forcing them into prostitution was totally fictitious. This was the conclusion of a Korean reporter, working for a Korean newspaper.

The reason why the reporter started delving into this topic was that she had read the Korean translated version of Yoshida Seiji’s book about the forced transport of Korean women, described very vividly. The translation came out in 1989. The reporter is from the area of Chuje island, where the kidnapping supposedly took place. She was absolutely amazed, and she started asking senior villagers and local historians. The result was they all denied that there had been such acts.

So I would like you to understand that the testimony of Mr. Yoshida was in fact the starting point of this big issue. This is not one of the later “testimonies”, but the very decisive “testimony” that was the starting point of the whole issue.
Now please use your common sense. If truly there had been acts of kidnapping Korean women, numbering over 10,000, by the former Japanese army, if these ladies had been truly forced into trucks, and carried away to war zones to work as sex slaves, why didn’t the Korean people resist, even though it was war-time?

Believing such a story amounts to insult to the fathers and mothers of Korean young women.

It is possible to argue that during the war, people were not able to protest because Japan controlled Korea. But what about after the war? After the war, Japan was criticized in many ways for various behavior during the war. Some of these criticisms were natural consequences and rightfully made. However, was Japan ever criticized at that time, even once, for forcing women into becoming comfort women? Never.

In 1965, a normalization treaty called Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea was concluded, and agreements were made on, for example, giving up Japanese assets in Korea. All kinds of war-related issues were brought up and hard negotiations were made. If there had been acts as inhuman as forcing women into prostitution, Korea would certainly have taken it up. It would necessitate an immediate apology from Japan, and an even greater sum of reparation. During the whole course of bilateral negotiations, this issue was not once taken up.

The “testimonies” you mention have all appeared after the publication of Mr.Yoshida’s story, after which the “comfort women” issue began to take shape. What I’m saying is I do not doubt the ladies had worked as prostitutes in war zone, but there is no evidence that they were forced into prostitution by the Japanese army.

Let me answer the second question, on war crimes. I’m in total agreement that one cannot rationalize a speed limit violation just because another guy has also committed a speed limit violation. The important thing is the nature and the degree of war crimes committed by Japan. For these crimes, Japan has already completed ample indemnity and apologies.

Thirdly, I’d like to talk about the statement made by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono, during the Miyazawa administration. It pains me as a Japanese citizen to say this, but I believe that our government often loses its function as a normal, independent, autonomous entity.

Mr.Kono’s statement is such an example. If the Japanese government had carried out an extensive study, surely there would have been numerous witnesses to testify about forced transport of women. The government did nothing of the sort. All it did was to go to locations pre-designated by former comfort women, and listen only to their stories. The government did not bother to cross-check their stories.

There is absolutely no public document, or any other evidence, that even hints at the possibility that the military took away Korean women, and forced them into prostitution.

Nevertheless, despite all these facts, Mr. Kono made an announcement, in ambiguous words, which can be interpreted to mean the government acknowledges that the army enforced Korean women into prostitution. This lamentable incident has greatly hurt the honor and dignity of the Japanese people. The Japanese government has bowed to the pressure of the Korean government and other activist groups to issue a statement without verifying the facts. It’s a very complex issue and I could talk on and on, but I would like to stop here.

Question 2 (Peter McGill, Asahi Evening News) :
First of all you said Japan has profoundly apologized and paid for its war crimes. That is so, such nonsense, that is almost laughable. If it’s true, then there really wouldn’t be a problem. We all know it’s a major problem around the world. Japan has not profoundly apologized for it, and certainly not paid for it. I mean, I really can’t understand how a professor of any university, let alone Todai, can make such a preposterous statement, as you have today before this gathering.

I have two questions.

First is what you say about national honor. That sort of thing usually goes together with concern about national security. Now, you haven’t mentioned national security, but I naturally assume that you believe it should be re-doubled and strengthened and all those kind of things.
What about the alternative proposition that people such as yourself, the so-called revisionists, who say that Japan has nothing to apologize for and really didn’t do anything wrong, are in fact enemies of Japan’s national security, because they are largely responsible for the ideas they espouse, create such suspicion and distrust of Japan around the world. The major reason why Japan has so few friends anywhere in the world, because people just don’t trust a nation that behaves and says things like that. You’re actually damaging very profoundly the national security of your country. What do you think about that?

My second question is, I’m sure you don’t intend this, but you’ve become a hero of right-wing thugs of this country, the people who threaten publishers, who have resorted to violence and murder, not just in the 1930’s, but in the far more recent past in Japan, and they treat you like an intellectual hero. Of course, they’re the enemies of free speech, they’re the enemies of democracy.

I mean, they… How can one describe them? I was wondering, how you find that compatible with, you know, being the professor of Japan’s leading university, paid for by all of us taxpayers. You know, you’re actually a civil servant. Todai is supposed to be, you know, the citadel of freedom and free speech. Yet you’re being idolized by people who believe in the opposite, who want to end free speech, who threaten people who don’t agree with you.

Answer 2 (Fujioka) :
First of all, there is absolutely no truth to the fact that I am denying all war crimes committed by Japan. What I am saying is that Japan’s war crimes have been no worse than war crimes committed by other countries. Today’s topic is about the accusation that the Japanese army took women away and forced them to become prostitutes. This accusation is totally unjustified. The Japanese army never did a thing like that. Why does my denial on this particular point leads you to the conclusion that I am denying all Japanese war crimes? Your question is illogical and misleading.

You also say that such a denial makes the position of Japan a bad one, one without friends.
Actually, the opposite is true. End of last year, President Ziang Zemin of China visited Japan. He demanded written apologies from the Japanese government, which Japan refused. Afterwards, The London Economist commented that the Japanese government did a good thing for the world. Why? Because The London Economist said the boss of a communist party, which has killed tens of millions of its own people, is not qualified to attack something that happened more than 50 years ago. They called it “stomach churning”.

It is true that arguments like yours exist, and it is a handy one for attacking Japan. However, the world does not necessarily agree with you. We need to look at things in a balanced way. I believe that time has come to stop endless apologies, but rather distinguish between right and wrong, and deal with issues in a well-balanced manner. I believe that today’s world appreciates more a Japanese who can deal with matters rationally and resolutely.

You mention that I am supported by the right wing, who threaten publishers. I have nothing to do with such people. I do not believe in such acts, and when you criticize me in such a way, you should provide evidence. I’m positively against such behavior. For example, there have been acts by right wings, who cut the screen of a film they didn’t like. I think this is very foolish behavior, and it has exactly a reverse effect. I believe in freedom, democracy, and protection of free speech, and which are pre- conditions for Japanese society to advance, and that includes history education.

You are calling me the hero of such rightists. Is there any data about this? However I can speculate on the reasons. I think these people are not seriously thinking about historical issues, or they have reverse intentions. In Japan, we have a phrase, “homegoroshi”, or “praise someone to kill him” It is in fact possible to do this. You praise someone so high, that people will have an opposite reaction to that praise. Politically, it is a very simple method. I hope you honorable reporters will not be fooled by it.
Question 3 (A. Horvat, Tokyo resident) :
In 1989, the well-known British sociologist Ronald Dore gave a talk at this club, and he was also asked at that time about the comfort women controversy. He made the following rather prescient suggestion, and that is that “wouldn’t it be great if the Japanese government would hand over this subject to an impartial body of foreign historians, which might be acceptable to all sides, and to ask them to look into details from an impartial third-party point of view, and come back with a report.

Professor Dore suggested there had been several German companies that had done the same thing, and had opened their files about the abuses which they were accused of doing during World War II.

A number of these companies had accepted the reports, and have abided by them and considered them part of their corporate history. I’m wondering if your group would be interested in having such a body set up, and whether you would be willing to abide by the conclusions of an international group of historians?

Answer 3 (Fujioka) :
Thank you for your very constructive opinion. Your suggest that the Japanese government hand over research to a third foreign party.

The presumption here is that the Japanese government would make efforts to arrive at a conclusion that benefits national interest, as much as possible. However, as Mr. Kono’s statement shows, the reverse is the case. Even today, there is no authoritative body in this country making the effort to pursue the truth. Because of this fact, I believe that, first of all, the Japanese government should terminate Mr. Kono’s unfounded statement, and start research on facts. Nothing will start without such a vital process. Of course, if an international organ or a group of scholars could be set up, with their neutrality and fairness guaranteed, I think that would be wonderful.

However, the way things are now, the Japanese government should utilize all its facilities and ability to carry out an investigation. For example, there are many people in Korea who lived through the same time period as when the supposed kidnapping took place. The government should ask these people what they know. I believe that such an investigation will reveal how fabricated the story is. So far the government has done nothing of the sort.

A governmental investigation should precede others, and when arguments from both sides are on the table, if international scholars investigate the matter further, from such a foundation, I think it could be a very fair process, to solve the matter conclusively.

Question 4 (Kang, Life and Dream Publishing Company, South Korea) :
My English is maybe not good enough, but I’ll try to speak in English. We have basic difference, between you and me, between us, because you think there was no military comfort women, especially compulsory military comfort women. I and we think there are. I’ve so many things I can argue with you, but I’m afraid we have not enough time today. For instance, let me say a couple of things.

You say why Korean government did not act aggressively, I noticed. Why Korean peoples did not protest , when their daughter was dragged, I know the answer. If you like to know the reason for all of these, I’m willing to supply you the reason. I’m a free man. Maybe it will help you to your study. But today, I’d like to ask you, you are strongly working to delete this military comfort women clause in history book. Maybe you are ? in Japan. But how about have you ever thought of it globally, or of the same issues in other countries ? I’m saying students, when Japanese students, I should say your purification movement, they may think eventually there was no military comfort women, but the other countries, they will have more and more, this movement, will be progressed. Don’t you think there is this big gap between the young people of Japan and other countries will make a serious problem?

Second question. Well, you can answer or not, you are free. More than one million Japanese young and strong soldiers went out to the front line. How do you think they solved their sexual appetite or sexual problem? You mentioned that mostly there were prostitutes. You think Japan had enough prostitutes to meet the demand of more than one million strong and young soldiers? Thank you.

Answer 4 (Fujioka) :
I’m not sure whether you are stating an opinion, or a question.

You say you have answers about why the Koreans did not oppose or criticize the Japanese. I can guess at your answers that you wish to give me, but since you are not making a public comment about it, I will not comment on it here.
You ask me whether I am considering this issue from a global viewpoint, and my answer is that of course I am considering it from a global, international viewpoint.

Judging the matter against international standards, I believe that the Japanese army did not take away unwilling women to force them into prostitution. However, I do imagine that during the war, there were war crimes committed by Japan. However, such war crimes, if they occurred, should be treated under the same standards as war crimes committed by other countries.

However, at the moment, Japan is being singled out for this issue. False information is being disseminated throughout the world under particular political intentions. I would like to remind you that the information is based on a false testimony, and an apology of the Japanese government, made without proper investigation. I intend to continue with my effort to erase the bad image that has been propagated throughout the world.

As for answering the sexual needs of one million soldiers, this kind of problem has existed for all armies of all countries. When Korea fought in the Vietnam War, the same problem surfaced. So my point is that surely the same international standard should be applied to discuss this issue.

March 20, 2007

Reward to the “IANFU” comfort women.

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea,U.S.A. — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 2:40 pm
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 Reward to the “IANFU” comfort women is written in detail to the following U.S. Army report at ww2.
Report No. 49: Japanese POW Interrogation on Prostitution.
Psychological Warfare Team Attached to U.S. Army Forces
India-Burma Theater APO 689
Japanese Prisoner of War Interrogation
Report No. 49. Place interrogated: Ledo Stockade
Date Interrogated: Aug. 20 – Sept. 10, 1944
Date of Report: October 1, 1944
By: T/3 Alex Yorichi
Prisoners: 20 Korean Comfort Girls
Date of Capture: August 10, 1944
Date of Arrival: August 15, 1994 at Stockade

1. Soldiers 10 AM to 5 PM 1.50 yen 20 to 30 minutes

2. NCOs 5 PM to 9 PM 3.00 yen 30 to 40 minutes

3. Officers 9 PM to 12 PM 5.00 yen 30 to 40 minutes

These were average prices in Central Burma. Officers were allowed to stay overnight for twenty yen. In Myitkyina Col. Maruyama slashed the prices to almost one-half of the average price.


The “house master” received fifty to sixty per cent of the girls’ gross earnings depending on how much of a debt each girl had incurred when she signed her contract. This meant that in an average month a girl would gross about fifteen hundred yen. She turned over seven hundred and fifty to the “master”. Many “masters” made life very difficult for the girls by charging them high prices for food and other articles.


 They earn 1500 yen month.  They repay the half to” masters”, and 750 yen remains at hand. It becomes 750(yen)×12=9000(yen) when it is one year.
In Japan, value of money is very different from this age in modern days.
How much value does this amount of money “9000 yen” have at that time?
I shows the annual salary of the Japanese army according to the class at that time. 

(As of July, 1943)
General             6600 yen
Lieutenant general     5800 yen
Major General                5000 yen
Colonel                          4440-3720 yen
Commander                   3720-2640 yen
Major                              2640-2040 yen
Captain                          1860-1470 yen
Liutenant                       1130-1020 yen
Second lieutenant           850 yen
It is a salary as follows.
Sergeant major                 75-32 yen
Sergeant                           32-23 yen
Corporal                            20 yen
Lance Corporal                 13.5 yen
Superior soldier                10.5 yen
Senior soldier                     9 yen
Junior soldier                      9-6 yen

 The rewards to them are higher than the annual salary of the general.

 Ms.Mun Ochs who lives in South Korea (68 years old)  worked as a comfort woman for 2 years and three months.
 She visited the Shimonoseki post office in  Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi prefecture, Japan on May 11, 1992. She was requesting the payment of military savings entrusted during the war in Myanmar (old Burma).The ledger of her savings was kept in the Shimonoseki post office.
 It recorded 12 savings from June, 1943 to September, 1945, and the balance was 26,145 yen according to the ledger.
(From the Mainichi Shimbun news paper report on May 22, 1992. )

 She saved a near amount of money in four years of the annual salary of the general in two years and three months .

This is realities of “sex slaves”

March 16, 2007

” ‘IANFU’ comfort women wanted. ” on Korean newspaper.

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Japan,Korea — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 8:11 am
Tags: , , , , , , , ,

Korean Newspaper Ads for “Comfort Women,” 1944

Blog of a person who is far good at English better than me.

Filed under: IANFU 'comfort women',Korea — Sei-no-Syounagon @ 2:46 am

Blog of a person who is far good at English better than me.

An Australian has managed this blog.  It is natural.
This blog concerns Korea and the Korean,Takeshima(Dokdo),”IANFU” comfort woman, etc.

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